Ai Basata - Concise Grammar
Started: May 2, 2009
Last Update: May 4, 2009

The original Ai Basata dictionary was a MYSQL database driven by php scripts. This link is to a complete dictionary dump of the old MYSQL data base.

The Design Goals of ai Basata

Ai Basata (The Speech, pronounced eye-BAH-sah-tah) is meant to be as simple as a language can be and still allow for the full range of expressiveness of any natural language. To this end certain simplifying stipulations have been made, to wit: The orthography will use the conventional Roman alphabet with no diacritical marks. The language will be vaguely Indo-Aryan, finding inspiration for its roots in Sanskrit, Pali, and other Indo-Aryan languages, but using a grammar completely different from and much simpler than that of those languages.

In what follows there will be a minimum of technical jargon, both because I would like this grammar to be accessable to non-linguists, and because I, myself, am not a linguist, and I don't feel comfortable using jargon that I am not truly at home with. Better to remain jargon free and be thought a simpleton than to misuse jargon and flaunt my ignorance.

Ai Basata is an infant language, and is subject to much change and revision as time goes on. However, this HTML document will be my own primary reference source, and it will be necessary that I keep it up to date with whatever changes are being made. For that reason, this page should represent the very latest incarnation of ai Basata grammar.

Phonology (baswitata)

Vowels (Sara)

There are five pure vowels in ai Basata. They are pronounced as in "Mogadishu day" (o, a, i, u, e). When two vowels occur together they are pronounced by gliding from the first vowel sound to the second. For example, ai would be pronounced like the English "eye". (AH -> EE) The vowel "u" is never pronounced "you", like the English "use", unless it is actually preceded by a "y".

There are no silent vowels in ai Basata. Every vowel is pronounced so that: one would be pronounced OH-nay.

Consonants (Anukula)

The consonants are pronounced as follows:

b - b in bat, babyp - p in pot, poppy
- ch in church, chimer - r in roar, rug
d - d in dog, dids - s in sit, sister
f - f in foot, funsh - sh in shoe
g - g in girl, gagt - t in tip, tot
h - h in him, hatv - v in valve, velvet
j - j in judge, juryw - w in wow, wave
k - k in kick, kingy - y in you, yap
l - l in loop, lullz - z in zoo, zip
m - m in map, tamex - s in measure, pleasure
n - n in new, nine 

"TH" does not exist, the letter Q is not used. The CH sound may be written either as plain c or as , although plain C is prefered for ease of entry on a standard keyboard.

Proper names are normally kept in their original form, however, if it desired to transliterate proper names into standard ai Basata orthography then the unvoiced "th" becomes "f" and the voiced "th" becomes "d", while the vowel sounds round off to their nearest approximation. For example: Theodore Witherspoon => Fiyodor Widerspun.

Accent (Stress) (Ukasara)

The stress always falls on the final vowel of the root, regardless of any compounding or additional suffixes. When two roots are used in a word, both final root vowels are stressed, but the final root gets the principle stress, while the intial root is only lightly stressed. The dictionary, and some educational texts (including this web page) will show the stress by underlining the vowels, however, these stress indicators are not normally used in written ai Basata. It is important to learn the roots so that stress is placed in the right place when speaking ai Basata.

If stress is not marked on this page or in the dictionary, it usually falls on the second vowel from the end of the word: ukasara, namapada. When in doubt, consult the dictionary. The defintion entry will always include the root structure of the word, and each root's final vowel is stressed.

Pronouncing "Long" Words.

For someone used to English with its relatively short words, at first glance a word like apasahasado ("has run away") might look a little imtimidating. But once you become familiar with the many prefixes and suffixes, the pronunciation of such words is easy, because you will already have had practise using those same prefixes and suffixes in other words. Then you will easily see that word as apa - sahas - ado and the pronunciation will roll of your tongue effortlessly.

Morphology (Rupawitata)

Word Structure (Pade Rupa)

Words are built up from roots by adding prefixes and suffixes, and by compounding two or more words together to form a new word.

Roots (Anupada)

Roots usually begin with a consonant and always end with a consonant. The general forms are: VC - CVC - VCVC - CVCVC. The C in those forms represents either a single consonant or a cluster of two, or very rarely, three consonants. Likewise, the V in the forms usually represents a single vowel, but may represent a pair of vowels, though never the same vowel repeated.

Suffixes (Atata)

Suffixes always begin with a vowel so that they can be seamlessly pasted onto the end of a root. In addition to beginning with a vowel, suffixes also always end in a vowel. Some common suffixes are a single vowel, but the most common form for a suffix is VCV. When two or more suffixes are stacked in a way that causes vowels to collide, the vowels will either be retained, or will be altered in the manner shown in the sandhi table at the bottom of the page. The final suffix on a root will always define the part of speech. The list of final vowels will be given below when parts of speech are discussed.

Prefixes (Purata)

Prefixes may begin with a vowel or a consonant, but always end with a vowel. When adding a prefix to a root that begins with a vowel, an additional consonant, usually "n" is inserted between the prefix and the root: a + eke = aneke "not + singular = plural".

Compound Words (Lagopada)

Words that contain more than one root are compound words. When roots are joined together they can be joined directly, or joined with a vowel. For example, lag "join" + pada "word" gives lagopada, while sam "together" + pada "word" gives sampada without an intervening vowel. The rule is that the extra vowel is left out if the second root already begins with a vowel, or two joined roots form a consonant cluster considered acceptable. (See table of acceptable consonant clusters below.) Note that when a prefix ends in a vowel, that vowel is always retained, thus: anu- + pada is anupada, not *anpada.

Deriving Parts of Speech

Most roots can be used as many different parts of speech. A preposition like ikeni "into", for example, can also, by changing its ending, become a verb like ikeno "to enter, to go into". A stative preposition like eni "inside of" can, with a prefix and a change in suffix, become the verb eno "to be inside of". Each time you learn a new word, learn the root of that word and you will have the foundation for many other related words.

Some Sample Derivations

Roots:

en = [root] in
od = [root] out
rad = [root] red
ur = [root] large, big

Prefixes:

ik- = [prefix] active from stative
ki- = [prefix} alternate form of ik- when root begins with consonant
ir(e)- = [prefix] begin, commence

Suffixes:

-a = noun
-e = adjective
-i = preposition.adverb
-o = verb

Transitive prepositions:

eni = [prep] in X, inside of X
odi = [prep] outside of X
ikeni = [prep] into X
ikodi = [prep] out-from X

Intransitive prepositions: (aka adverbs)

ikeni = [adv] inward (when used intrasitively)
ikodi = [adv] outward (when used intrasitively)

Adjectives:

ene = [adj] inside: the inside wall is plaster
ikene = [adj] incoming, inbound: The incoming mass is captured by the black hole.
ode = [adj] outside: the outside wall is brick
ikode = [adj] outgoing, outbound: The outgoing president waved goodbye.
rade = [adj] red: The sky is red.
kirade = [adj] reddening: "The reddening sky is beautiful."
ure = [adj] large, big
ikure [adj] growing, big-becoming

Verbs:

eno = [v] to be inside of X: "Ma eno mandira." "I am-inside-of (the) house."
ikeno = [v] to be entering into X: "Ma ikeno mandira." "I am-entering (the) house."
irikeno = [v] to begin to enter X: "Ma irikeno mandira." "I am-beginning-to-enter (the) house."
odo = [v] to be outside of X: "Ma odo mandira." "I am-outside-of (the) house."
ikodo = [v] to be exiting X: "Ma ikodo mandira." "I am-exiting (the) house."
irikodo = [v] to begin to exit X: "Ma irikodo mandira." "I am-beginning-to-exit (the) house."
rado = [v] to be red "Akasha rado." "(The) sky is-red."
kirado = [v] to become red "Akasha kirado." "(The) sky is-becoming-red."
irekirado = [v] to begin to become red "Akasha irekirado." "(The) sky is-beginning-to-become-red."
uro = [v] to-be-big: "Mandira uro." "(The) house is-big."
ikuro = [v] to-be-growing, becoming-big: "Ai Johnny ikuro." "(name) Johhny is-growing."
irikuro = [v] to-be-beginning-to-grow, to-start-becoming-big: 
    "Ai Johnny irikuro." "(name) Johhny is-starting-to-grow."
          

Syntax (Vakyawitata)

The following section may look large and intimidating, but keep in mind that this section covers (or will eventually cover) the entire grammar of ai Basata. There is no "advanced grammar" beyond this. There are no further topics to be covered in greater detail. Once this page of information is digested then you will know the grammar of ai Basata in it's entirety. It really is that simple. (Well, that's the plan, at least.)

This section covers how words are joined into various bits and pieces, which are then are assembled into a complete sentence. There are four basic sentence types. The first basic sentence type is declarative which makes an assertion and is symbolized by A in the syntax rules. The second type is interrogative which asks a question and is symbolized with K. The third type is imperative which states a request or command, and is symbolized I. The final type is an exclamation, which has no syntax beyond a single word, or group of words expressing surprise, dismay, triumph, or other basic emotional response: "AHA!" or "Ouch!" or "Eureka!". <--- NOTE: use ai Basata examples

Just to emphasize how simple ai Basata syntax is, here are all the rules of syntax in handy table form. The rest of this section is simply an explanation of what each rule means, and how to use it.

Declarative (Assertion) Rules

  1. An Assertion A must be at least SV.
    SV can be augmented with any number of O, which can come before, between, or after SV.
  2. S must be at least N.
    N can be augmented by any number of J, which must come before N:
    Example: N, JN, JJN, JJJN, etc. are all valid.
    N can be augmented by at most one O, which must follow N:
    Example: N, NO, JNO, JJNO, etc. are all valid.
    N, augmented or not, can be preceded by one of D, QD, DQ, QDQ
    Example: DN, JNO, QDNO, DJJN, DQJJNO, etc. are all valid S.
  3. O must be either an R, a J or a phrase beginning with P.
    P can be augmented by one N, one J, or one A which follows P:
    Example: P, PN, PJ, and PA are the only valid O. (N may be augmented by rule 2)
    A J can only be used when the verb that governs the O is a copula, or copula-like verb.
  4. C joins two elements of the same kind and behaves like one of those elements:
    Examples:
    VCV acts like V.
    SCS acts like S.
    etc.
    Some C have a detached particles:
    C...x used like this: VCVx acts like V.
    C...x used like this: CAxA acts like A.
    etc.
  5. A phrase of the form PLP can function as equivalent to a single P.
    L is a noun, noun phrase, adjective, or adjectival phrase denoting location, proximity, or direction in time or space. Examples:
    in the general direction of
    at a great distance from
Need sections for Interrogative and Imperative

The following section explains what the above rules mean, and how to use them.

Parts of Speech (Anugata)

Native ai Basata grammarians (pretend you believe there is such a thing) divide their words into a different set of categories than do English grammarians. Some anugata (roughtly "parts of speech") apply to single words, and some apply only to phrases or clauses. Most ai Basata anugata encompass several different English "parts of speech". While it might be convenient to think of nampada, for example, as "nouns", it must be remembered that the category is, in fact, somewhat different than the English category "noun".

Nouns (Nampada)

Words of category nampada always end in -a.

Elements of type nampada are symbolized as N in syntax rules.

The category nampada, "nouns", includes all words, phrases, and clauses that name a person, place, thing, or abstract entity capable of being the sensible subject of a verb. This includes nouns, noun phrases, pronouns, and nominalized adjectives ("the poor"). When discussing sentence structure and syntax no distinction is made between a simple one-word noun ("horse") and a complex noun phrase ("the horse that jumped over my brother Sam's car"). Both are refered to as nampada, and are taken to be interchangable in any syntax rule. <--- NOTE: use ai basata examples

If you need to talk specifically about a noun phrase or clause as opposed to a single-word noun, the term namapade anuvakya "noun.ADJ phrase" is used.

Gender, Case and Plural (Linga, Vibata, u Aneka)

Nouns have no grammatical gender.

Plural is usually implied by context or a quantifier or determiner that suggests plurality: ("some book" implies plural "some books"). <--- NOTE: use ai basata examples If a noun is to be explicitly marked as plural it is either followed by the particle sa, or preceded by the plural form of the definite article dese. For example: potaka "book", mane potaka "many books", potaka sa "books", or dese potaka "the books".

Nouns are not inflected for case. A noun remains unchanged in form regardless of its role in the sentence.

Proper Nouns (Nama)

When an ordinary noun is used as a proper noun it is preceded by the special "namer article", ai. Thus the ordinary noun basata "speech" becomes the name of the language: ai Basata "The Speech". This article is permitted, but not required in front of names which can only be names. It is often used anyway as a mild honorific: ai John.

Unusual Nouns

Many ai Basata nouns are not considered to be nouns in English. For example, the English adverb "here" is the ai Basata noun ida which translates back into English as "this place", which is clearly a noun phrase. The rule of thumb is never assume that an ai Basata word will have the same part of speech as the English equivalent.

Pronouns (Sabanama)

Pronouns each have three forms, one nominal and two possessive. Only the nominal form belongs to the category nampada. The possessive forms, which can take the -e or -u ending, will be discussed in detail under the categories nichapada "determiners", and sampada "connectors".

This chart shows all three forms of the pronouns. Note that no distinction is made between the English "he" and "it". The possessive forms are in parentheses.

I - ma
(mue/mu)
we - misa
(muse/masu)

you - da
(due/du)
you (pl) - dusa
(dose/dasu)

he/it - ta
(tue/tu)
they - tisa
(tuse/tasu)

she - wa
(we/wu)
they - wasa
(wise/wasu)
(only if group is all females)

one - ona
(onote/onatu)
 

Reflexive Pronouns

The suffix -lia makes a pronoun reflexive:

maliamyselfmisaliaourselves
daliayourselfdusaliayourselves
taliahimself
itself
tisaliathemselves
waliaherselfwasaliathemselves
onaliaoneself 

Adjectives (Sankosapada)

Words of category sankosapada always end in -e.

Elements of type sankosapada are symbolized as J in syntax rules.

sankosapada are simple adjectives, or adjectival phrases which can augment the meaning of a noun or noun phrase (nampada). sankosapada always precede the nampada (noun or noun phrase) they augment. We could say that a sankosapada + nampada can replace any other nampada. This is written symbolically as N <=> JN which means that any N anywhere in any sentence can be replaced by a JN, and vice versa. This process can be repeated ending up with JN, JJN, JJJN and so on:

          The [         dog] ran.
          The [    ugly dog] ran.
          The [big ugly dog] ran.
              |            |
              \- nampada -/    <--- NOTE: use ai basata examples
        

sankosapada can be intensified or otherwise modulated by modifer prefixes (Puravikara) which correspond to such English words as "very", "not very", "somewhat", "too", and so on. For example: sesire "cold", masesire "very cold", mahasesire "bitterly cold", or hate "hot", ajihate "too hot".

Building Subjects (Katora) with Determiners and Quantifiers (Nichapada u Pamyapada)

Determiners (Nichapada)

Words of category nichapada always end in -e.

Elements of type nichapada are symbolized as D in syntax rules.

The category of nichapada includes what in English are called articles, demonstrative adjectives, and possesive pronouns. There is no indefinite article in ai Basata ("a/an"). The definite article is de, and has a plural form dese, as mentioned above in the section on nouns. The definite article is quite often left out in ai Basata where it would normally appear in English: ma pasato i pubina. "I see ACC kitten". (i is a preposition-like particle that heads the direct object clause. See Augmentatives below.) The definite article is, however, almost always included in the subject noun phrase, where appropriate.

Possessive pronouns with -e endings are interchangable with determiners, and may be considered as syntactically equivalent with them: de rade potaka <=> ayote rade potaka, "the red book <=> my red book".

Quantifiers (Pamyapada)

Words of category pamyapada always end in -e.

Elements of type pamyapada are symbolized as Q in syntax rules.

Quantifiers specify a number or relative quantity or portion of what is named by the noun. Examples include: "some", "many", "all", "few", "most" "two", "three hundred". For more details on numbers, see the cardinal number system table at the bottom of this page.

Combining Determiners and Quantifiers

Quantifiers can directly replace determiners: kirse puba "three cats", or they can follow a determiner: de kirse puba "the three cats", or they can precede the determiner: kirse ide puba "three (of) these cats". When a quantifier precedes the determiner it acts as a selector, selecting some quantity from an implied, but unspecified larger whole. If the size of the larger whole is to be specified then one quantifier is placed before the determiner and a second one after the determiner: kirse ide dikuane puba "three (of) these fourteen cats".

You might have noticed that in the phrase de kirse puba the plural form of the definite article is not used. This is because kirse "three" tells us the noun is plural, so it does not need to be further specified. In a sense, the plural article dese is a last-ditch solution used only if it is really necessary to specify plurality, and then, only if no previous word has already done the job of specifying plurality.

Building Subjects (Katora)

The category of katora covers phrases built from nouns, adjectives, determiners, quantifiers, and clausal augmentatives (see below for augmentatives).

Elements of type katora are symbolized as S in syntax rules.

Every nampada (noun-like word or phrase) eventually ends up at the core of a katora, or subject. The basic katora is simply S <= N, a noun or noun phrase of the type discussed under nampada above. The basic N can be augmented with a determiner and/or quantifier. The permitted forms are: N or DN or QN or DQN or QDN or QDQN. Each of these may optionally be followed by a clausal augmentative, the usage of which is explained below under "Noun Augmetors". Thus: NO or DNO or QNO or DQNO or QDNO or QDQNO are also valid forms.

Adjectival Subjects (Sankose Katora)

Adjectival subject, sankose katora, consist only of one or more adjectives, and may only be used as objects of a copula or copula-like verb: "He is happy.", "He seems sad.", "It looks broken.", "It sounds bad." <---- NOTE: Use ai Basata examples here

Adjectival arguments are classified as subjects so that they can be joined to other subjects into a compound subject: SCS as in Ta hado i [alase u dumeda]. "He is ACC [lazy and (a) fool]." Here the adjectival, S "lazy" is conjoined with the noun phrase S "a fool".

Verbs (Kriyapada)

Words of category kriyapada always end in -o.

Elements of type kriyapada are symbolized as V in syntax rules.

Tense, Mood, Voice and Aspect (??, ??, ??, ??)

Marking mood/tense/voice/aspect.

The Copula

The copula, hado is seldom used. Instead, the verb form of a preposition or adjective takes its place. Thus Jala hajolo. "Water is-wet.", where hajolo derives from jole "wet". Adjectives and stative prepositions use this form. Prepositions of motion simply change their ending: Ma eno mandira. "I go-into (the) house." from the preposition eni "into".

Augmentatives (Abivadoka)

The category of abivadoka covers phrases built from subjects, adverbs, prepositions, and adjectives. There are three different types of abivadoka, discussed below. Augmentatives share some of the properties of "objects" in other languages.

Elements of type abivadoka are symbolized as O in syntax rules.

Prepositional Augmentatives (Pure Vadoka)

A prepositional augmentative, pure vadoka, is built from a preposition followed by a subject: O <= PS: "into three of the seven glass bottles". <----- NOTE: Use ai Basata examples here One preposition, or particle that does not exist in English is i. An augmentative phrase headed by i is the direct object of the main verb of the sentence: ma pasato i pubina. "I see ACC (the) kitten." The use of i is, strictly speaking, required by the rules, but in common usage, it is often omitted when the direct object immediately follows the verb. If the direct object is in any other location the use of i is strictly observed.

Two other occasions where the use of i is strictly observed are in the passive, and when the direct object is a quoted sentence that immediately follows verbs like "said", "exclaimed", "asked", and so on: Ai John retodo i "Ma pasato wa." '(name) John said ACC "I see her."'. (Note the omission of the comma, which is not used after i.)

In the passive construction, the verb is without a subject, so the passive nature of the patient is emphasized by using i as in: Wa pasato. "She sees." vs. Pasato i wa." "She is seen."

Clausal Augmentatives (Anuvakye Vadoka)

A clausal augmentative, anuvakye vadoka, is built from a preposition followed by a complete declarative sentence: O <= PA. For exampe: hi ta karo rade paduka "who/that he has red shoes." ("who/that" in English is not a preposition, but the equivalent construction in ai Basata does use the preposition hi.)

Noun Augmentors (Name Vadoka) N+O forms

Clausal augmentatives can be used as modifiers to a noun or noun phrase. When used they follow the N giving N <= NO. The name vadoka often takes the place of a prepositional phrase in constructions like (English) "The boy with red shoes is here." => De biala hi tu karo rade paduka hado ida. "The boy who/that he has (ACC) red shoes is (ACC) here." (Note the omission of i in keeping with common usage.)

Notice that because the clausal augmentative has the form O <= PA, it must include a complete sentence after the preposition, necessitating the use of the pronoun tu as the subject of the verb karo in the clause.

Adverbial Augmentatives (Kriye Vadoka)

In English an adverbial augmentative would simply be called an adverb. In ai Basata, however, the syntactic value of an adverb is identical with any other augmentative, and can be placed into a sentence anywhere an augmentative can. Adverbs are therefore classified as augmentatives.

Many English adverbs are not classified as adverbs in ai Basata, however, and their roles are taken by other constructions, most often connectors (sampada) as explained below.

Connectors (Sampada)

Words of category sampada always end in -u.

Members of sampada are symbolized as C in syntax rules. Two-part sampada (see below) are symbolized as C...x where x is the detached particle.

Connectors, or sampada join together elements that have the same syntactic value. Nouns are always joined to nouns, noun phrases, pronouns, or nominalized adjectives. Augmentative phrases are only joined to other augmentative phrases, and so on. It is impossible for a sampada to join, say, a noun to a verb, or an adjective to a noun.

Sampada join elements together in many more ways than do English conjunctions. For example, a possesive pronoun is a sampada which joins two nouns: Ai John tu kukra apasahaso. "John his dog away-runs." The form is NCN i.e. N tu N. The complementary form N dau N "N of N" expresses the same relationship but in the opposite direction. Thus: ai John tu kukra "John his dog" has the same meaning as kukra dau ai John "dog of John".

Among others, the sampada in ai Basata take the place of English conjunctions, subordinators, subordinating conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs, certain adverbial constructions, and possessives.

In addition to simple sampada, there are two additional forms of sampada. These are purasampada, "forward sampada", and atasampada, "backward sampada". Both are symbolized as C...x where x is the detached particle. With these two forms the sampada is in two parts which surround one of the joined elements. With purasampada the first element is surrounded: "If it rains then we will stay home." <------NOTE: Use ai Basata examples here With atasampada the second element is surrounded by the parts: "We will stay home If it rains then." <------NOTE: Use ai basata examples here This second form is unusual in English but common in ai Basata.

Some examples <------NOTE: Use ai Basata examples here

  • NCN: "I see [cows and pigs]."
  • SCS: "I have [three of the peaches and both of the apples]."
  • JCJ: "I see [blue and white] balloons."
  • VO C VO: "I [came home] and [watched TV]."
  • ACA: "[I came home] then [I watched TV]."
  • ACA: "[I will stay home] if [the weather is bad]."
  • ACA: "[This is too-hot] for [it can-be-handled]" ("This is too hot to handle.")

Sentence Structure (Vakye Rupa)

In the above material we have seen how to construct various phrases of various categories. It remains only to see how those elements are assembled into a sentence. In the sentence templates that follow, the various categories are represented by their letter code, as given in the section for that category.

Declarative Sentences (? Vakya)

The declarative sentence has the basic form SV. This basic form may be augmented by any number of abivadoka, "augmentatives", or symbol O. The O may be placed before, within, or after the SV. The only restriction is that an O may not interupt individual words of the V-phrase or S-phrase. If placed between S and V it must be placed on the S-V phrase boundry.

This simply means that every sentence in ai Basata has one of the forms: SV, or OSV, or SOV, or SVO, or OOSV, or OSOV, or OSVO, or SOOV, or SOVO, and so on along those lines.

As an extreme example of the process of adding on more O, consider these (in English):

  • SVO: I took the train.
  • SOVO: I unexpectedly took the train.
  • SOVOO: I unexpectedly took the train from Denver.
  • SOVOOO: I unexpectedly took the train from Denver to Boston.
  • SOVOOOO: I unexpectedly took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine.
  • SOVOOOOO: I unexpectedly took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine at noon.
  • SOVOOOOOO: I unexpectedly took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine at noon with Harold.
  • SOVOOOOOOO: I unexpectedly took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine at noon with Harold yesterday.
  • OSOVOOOOOOO: Sadly, I unexpectedly took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine at noon with Harold yesterday.
  • OOSOVOOOOOOO: Sadly, because of that telegram I unexpectedly I took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine at noon with Harold yesterday.
  • OOSOVOOOOOOOO: Sadly, because of that telegram I unexpectedly I took the train from Denver to Boston on track nine at noon with Harold yesterday so-that I could take care of the problem.

Beyond that, two declarative sentences may be connected with a connector such as SVO if SVO: "[I will-stay home] if [the weather is bad]." Notice that each SVO can stand on its own. <------- NOTE: Use ai Basata examples here

There are no other forms of declarative sentences in ai Basata. The table at the bottom of this page has many examples showing how this rule is applied to express a variety of different concepts and ideas. Once understood, this one simple sentence template should be able to duplicate the meaning of any complex sentence in any language.

Exceptions to the Rules

The rules are simple, and in theory, iron-clad. From time to time, as the language evolves, a few exceptions to the rules tend to creep in. Those exceptions will be documented here.

  1. When an O starts with the particle i, and immediately follows the verb that governs it, the particle may be dropped. De biala hi tu karo i rade paduka hado i ida. can become De biala hi tu karo rade paduka hado ida. "The boy that he has the red shoes is here.", "The boy with the red shoes is here."

Interrogative sentences (? Vakya)

Stuff about interrogatives

Imperative Sentences (? Vakya)

Stuff about imperatives

Exclamations (??)

Stuff about exclamations

Tables

Sandhi Table

Copy of Sandhi Table here showing how vowel + vowel changes when affixes are added.

Consonant Cluster Table

So far these have been discovered. More will follow as more compound words are discovered: -mp- -ms- -nch- -shw- -sw-

Copy of acceptable consonant clusters Table here.

Number System Table

When a number is used as an adjective, the ending is -e like any other adjective: kirse pubina "three kittens". When a number is used as a noun, it takes the normal noun ending, -a: Ma karo kirsa du hadaya. "I have (the) three of hearts." (Or more commonly, Ma karo hadaye kirsa. "I have the heart.ADJ three."

Stress is never indiciated on number words because their structure is such that the accent always falls on every other syllable, ending with the penultimate syllable: kuanoke yendiyene.

0 - zote32 - kirditose101 - onoke one (or onake zote one)
1 - one33 - kirdikirse102 - onoke tose
2 - tose34 - kirdikuane110 - onoke dise
3 - kirse...111 - onoke dione
4 - kuane40 - kuandise127 - onoke todiyene
5 - finse41 - kuandione200 - tosoke
6 - sepe42 - kuanditose274 - tosoke yendikuane
7 - yene43 - kuandikirse349 - kirsoke kuandiraze
8 - oke...477 - kuanoke yendiyene
9 - raze50 - findise531 - finsoke kirdione
10 - dise51 - findione628 - sepoke todioke
11 - dione52 - finditose741 - yenoke kuandione
12 - ditose53 - findikirse866 - okeka sepdisepe
13 - dikirse54 - findisuane901 - razoke one
14 - dikuane55 - findifinse1000 - disoke (or one podane)
...56 - findisepe2000 - todisoke (or tose podane)
20 - todise...1000 - disoke ( or one podane )
21 - todione60 - sepdise2000 - todisoke (or tose podane)
22 - toditose61 - sepdione3000 - kirdisoke (or kirse podane)
23 - todikirse62 - sepditose3512 - kirdisoke finsoke ditose (3 thousand 5 hundred twelve)
24 - todikuane70 - yendise3512 (alternate) kirdifinsoke ditose = 35 hundred twelve
25 - todifinse71 - yendione3512 (alternate) kirse podane finoke ditose
...80 - vidise7000 - yene podane (or yendisoke)
30 - kirdise90 - razdise10,000 - dise podane
31 - kirdione100 - onoke100,000 - onoke podane

Sample Sentences and Their Syntactic Structure

With each of these sentences you can look at the analysis and see which rules apply to each step in constructing or desconstructing the sentence. The first sentence shows which rule apply to each line as the sentence is taken apart into its consituent parts.

Example:

In the diagram, if ABCDE are the pieces used to make X, and FGHI makes Z then this is drawn:

ABCDEFGHI
X---/Z--/

Then if XZ makes Y that is drawn:

X    Z
Y----/

The two steps are put together like this:

ABCDEFGHI
X---/Z--/
X    Z
Y----/

Now a real sentence:

De  biala hi       tu karo (i)   rade paduka hado (i) ida.
The boy   who/that he has  ACC   red  shoes  is   ACC here.
D   N     P        N   V    P     J    N      V    P   N

DN PN V P JN V PN <--- This is the syntactic code for the sentence above.
DN PS V P N/ V PS <--- This line uses rules: S => N, N => JN
DN PS V P S  V PS <--- This line uses rules: S => N
DN PS V O-/  V O/ <--- This line uses rule: O => PS (twice)
DN PA---/    V O  <--- This line uses rule: A => SVO
DN O/        V O  <--- This line uses rule: O => PA
S--/         V O  <--- This line uses rule: S => DNO
A--------------/  <--- This line uses rule: A => SVO

        

The remaining sentences are shown without deconstruction. Various types of clauses and phrases are demonstrated. By figuring out how each was built from the rules above you will be prepared to translate any complex sentence into ai Basata.

Using Noun Noun Augmentors (Name Vadoka) 
----------------------------------------
Jala  jolo.
water is-wet.

Ma ikodo mandira.
Ma ikodo          mandira.
I  out-go   (the) house.
I exit the house.

De kanduka ikenado jala.
De  kanduka ikenado         jala.
The ball    into-went (the) water.
The ball went into the water.

De kanduka hi ta eno jala jolo.
De  kanduka hi   ta eno         jala  jolo.
The ball    that it is-in (the) water is-wet.
The ball in the water is wet.

De kanduka hi ta ikenado jala jolo.
De  kanduka hi   ta ikenado         jala  jolo.
The ball    that it into-went (the) water is-wet.
The ball that went into the water is wet.
        

The Babel Text

De sabale loka tamani te yuga karodo one basata u pahale pada sa. Tamani machata viajo abisuri, tisa achamodo mahangana en ai Shinar u tisa iremando en tatra. Tisa retodo abi tisalia i, "Gapeto, misa ganemano ginjaka u misa garako i tisa sampunati." Tisa yododo ginjaka hanu sila, u jurasa hanu sialaga.

Tenu tisa retodo i "Gapeto, misa ganemano heti misalia i nagara karati uganta hi ta arigato abi akasha, paditu misa pajo saloka ikari misalia u ni apivaharo i misa ikari muka du sabale loka."

Kinu ai Pramamacha avodo paditu ta pasato nagara u uganta hi macha nemano. Ai Pramamacha retodo i "Yadu tisa ir'kato ida tatu tisa hado sanka hi tisa baso samane basata tenu neida hi tisa yojeto hi tisa kato ta nisako ri tisa.