A Conlang with a Peculiar Grammar
by Gary J. Shannon
Created: Dec. 13, 2004
Last Revision: Feb. 1, 2010
Also check out POP - a variation on Soaloa
Shigudo a spoof language with a very similar phrase structure.
Personally, I'm not much interested in phonology so this conlang does nothing out of the ordinary in this arena. Some pronunciations are noted as they might be described to an English-speaker, but one can think of the phonology as being flexible enough, or perhaps subject to enough different dialects and understandable "foreign" accents that pronunciation need only be "close enough". There are no IPA or other esoteric pronunciation notations on this page.
For the most part, since I am more interested in exploring the possibilities of this grammar, I am borrowing words from Tahzu, one of my former conlangs. The Tazhu lexicon can be found here. Tazhu, in turn, draws its words from a number of other natlangs including Latin, Greek, Turkish, German, English, Sanskrit, and a handful of others. In most cases the original natlang word was then mutated in some significant way to arrrive at the Tazhu root. Since Tazhu is inflected and Soaloa is not I usually pick the simplest form of the Tazhu word to adopt in Soaloa.
The Rules of Grammar - Modern Soaloa vs. Ancient Soaloa
The remainder of this page contains the rules of grammar of Soaloa. Initially, these rules are "cast in stone" and meant to be applied without variation or exception. As time goes on and the conlang becomes more familiar, I imagine that usage will shift and iron-clad grammatical rules will be bent, broken and mutated to one degree or another. For this reason you may see a rule described early on in a way that implies that it is inflexible, and then later on you may encounter an exception that seems to come out of the blue, or that seems to contradict something mentioned earlier. Since it would be a big job to keep reveiwing the entire web site looking for older usages that contradict current usage, and since doing so would take time away from the continuing evolution of Modern Soaloa, I intend to let earlier rules and statements stand unchanged and unchallenged.
For that reason, any time a statement made on this web site contradicts a statement made earlier on this web site, assume that the earlier statement applies to "Old Soaloa" or perhaps even "Ancient Soloa" whereas the most recently stated rule or exception applies to current modern usage in contemporary Soaloa. The same applies to vocabulary.
Clauses and Sentences
Sentences in Soaloa are made up of clauses.
A clause consists of exactly three words. These words are refered to by their position in the clause. These positions are called the S location, the O location and the A location. In every clause these three words will always appear in that order: SOA.
The simplest sentence in Soaloa consists of three words, each filling one position: SOA.
To create a longer sentence one may append another clause to the end of an existing clause or sentence optionally using a linking word of type L.
Examples of longer sentence patterns include: SOASOA, SOALSOA, SOALSOASOA, SOALSOALSOA, ... and so on.
When two clauses are connected, with or without an L word, if the A word at the end of the first clause refers to the same thing as the S word at the head of the second clause then the S word may, under certain conditions, be omitted. That allows such patterns as: SOAOA, SOALOA, SOALOAOA, SOALSOALOA, ... and so on.
The O word that represents the verb "to be" in the sense of having a certain attribute, as in "The apple is red." can be left out, but only when it is in the present tense. That allows such patterns as: SA, SALSA, SOASA,... and so on.
Every allowable sentence in the language can be constructed in this manner.
Word that belong to class O end in the vowel "o" and may only occupy the O location in a clause.
Words that belong to class L end in the vowel "a" and may only be used between clauses to link two clauses together.
Words that belong to class SA end in the vowels "i", or "u" and may be used in either the S location or the A location in a clause.
Words that belong to class P end in the vowel "e", or in a consonant, and may, like class SA words, be used in either the S or A locations in a clause.
Class SA: Words in class SA name, either abstractly or concretely, directly or indirectly, people ("John", "you"), places ("home", "India"), things ("tree", "liberty"), attributes ("red", "large"), or states of being ("falling", "broken").
CLASS P: Words in class P that end in "e" refer to another word or clause elsewhere in the same sentence, or to a word or clause in another sentence that either preceeds or follows this sentence. Words in class P that end in a consonant are usually similar in function to what in English is called a preposition. Their use will become clear when we examine some specific examples a little later.
CLASS O: Words in class O establish a relationship between the word in the S location and the word in the A location. Some times these act like verbs, but not always. An example in English would be "belongs-to". When we say "Book belongs-to John" we have established a relationship between the S-location thing called "book" and the A-location thing called "John". For every word of type O there exists a complementary word, also of type O. If U is the complement of V and X and Y are type SA words in the language then the clause "XUY" has a meaning identical with that of the clause "YVX". For example "John owns house" = "house belong-to John" where "own" is the complement of "belong to"
CLASS L: Words in class L establish a link between two (or more) clauses.
Clauses and Units of Meaning
A unit of meaning is a single relationship between two things. A sentence might consist of a single unit of meaning, but more commonly it will consist of two or more units of meaning. A clause conveys a single unit of meaning and we will use the terms "clause" and "unit of meaning" interchangeably. In the English sentence "I have a crayon." there is exactly one unit of meaning, which establishes my relationship with the crayon. This would be translated into a single three-word clause in Soaloa, the equivalent of "I have crayon."
Most sentences, however, have more than one unit of meaning, such as "I have a red crayon." In this case there are two units of meaning. The first establishes the relationship between me and the crayon in question, and the second establishes the color attribute of that crayon. How these units of meaning are used will be examined in more detail in the following sections.
Forming a Sentence
Since clauses may be strung together indefinitely there must be a way to mark the end of the sentence. In writing we can use the period, or full stop, but in spoken Soaloa the end of a sentence is marked by appending the letter "m" to the last word in the sentence. It is pronounced as a slightly prolonged "hum" at the end of the last word. When the last word ends in "i" then "us" is appended instead.
Now let's take the simple English sentence "I have a crayon." Except for the article 'a' this sentence is already in the required form.
S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayon (seraku) singular SENTENCE = I have crayon.
Soaloa = Ku pozo serakum. (Append "-m" to last word.) S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayons (seraki) plural SENTENCE = I have crayons.
Soaloa = Ku pozo serakius. (Append "-us" to last word.)
Since every O word has a complement, this clause can also be written:
S = crayon (seraku) O = belong (huro) A = I (ku) SENTENCE = Crayon belong I. Soaloa = Seraku huro kum.
(Later we will see some distinctions between "have" and "own" and see that different words are used to imply ownership as opposed to mere possession. When we cover those fine points we will see that "belong" is really the complement of "own" not of "have." But those details can wait for later.)
Now suppose we want to tell the listener that we have a red crayon. Clearly this cannot be expressed in a single three-word clause, because there are two separate facts that need to be imparted to the listener: 1) that I have a crayon and 2) that this crayon is red. This sentence will require two clauses.
But before we can create clauses and link them together we need a way to refer back unambiguously to the Ss and As of previous clauses. Consider the English sentence:
"When I spoke with Tom and Ed he was giving him a hard time."
Which person is "he" and which person is "him"? Pronoun assignments need to be free of ambiguity. Class P words will be used for this purpose.
Here are the first two P words: The word "same" (pronounced SAH-may) will be used to refer to the S of the immediate previous clause and the word "ite" (EE-tay) will be used to refer to the A of the immediate previous clause.
Now we can build the two clauses we need to say "I have a red crayon." These two clauses are:
S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayon (seraku) and S = it (ite) the A of the previous clause O = is (to) (TOE) has-attribute A = red (lozhu)
In this case the link is the default or null link and the two clauses can simply be joined as in:
I have crayon it is red. (SOASOA) Ku pozo seraku ite to lozhum.
As mentioned in the introductory remarks, the verb "to be" when translated "to" as in the above sentence, can be omitted.
I have crayon it (is) red. (SOASA) Ku pozo seraku ite lozhum.
Now suppose someone steps on my red crayon. We will need three clauses to express "My red crayon is broken." These clauses are:
S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayon (seraku) S = it (ite) O = that-is (shto) (SHTOE) A = red (lozhu) S = same (same) (the S from the previous clause which is "IT" which is "crayon")) O = is (to) A = broken (fraktiu)
Notice the use of the O word "shto" ("that-is") rather than "to" ("is"). In this clause we are not telling the listener that our crayon is red, instead we are using the red attribute incidentally to identify a particular crayon.
Now we can tack these clauses together into a complete sentence:
I have crayon it that-is red same is broken. Ku pozo seraku ite shto lozhu same to fraktium.
You might wonder why we couldn't have written:
*I have crayon it that-is red it is broken. *Ku pozo seraku ite shto lozhu ite to fraktium.
At first glance that seems to make sense. However, the second "ite" refers back to the A of the prior clause, so that sentence is telling us that "red is broken". This is clearly not what we intend to convey.
The Use and Non-use of "ite"
As you probably have begun to notice, the word "ite" seems to get a lot of use in Soaloa, but it is customary to omit the word in all but poetic or extremely formal speech and writing. The above example would more normally be written:
I have crayon (it) that-is red same is broken. Ku pozo seraku shto lozhu same to fraktium.
It was mentioned above that the O-word "to" can be left out, but there are exceptions to this rule. In the sentence "Ku pozo seraku ite to lozhum." ("I have crayon it is red.") the rules imply that you could leave out both "ite" and "to", but in practice one or the other (or both) of these two words is always retained. Thus you could write:
I have crayon it is broken. Ku pozo seraku ite to fraktium. I have crayon (it) is broken. Ku pozo seraku to fraktium. I have crayon it (is) broken. Ku pozo seraku ite fraktium. But not: *I have crayon (it) (is) broken. *Ku pozo seraku fraktium.
These three are equivalent in meaning but modern practice prefers to keep "to" and discard "ite" as in "Ku pozo seraku to fractium."
More P Words
Another common P word is "ure" (OO-ray) which is used to refer back to one item in a collection of items that were the A of the previous clause. For example: "One of my crayons is red."
S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayons (seraki) plural S = one of (ure) O = is (to) -- optional A = red (lozhu) I have crayons one (of which) (is) red. Ku pozo seraki ure lozhum.
Be sure to use the form of the O word that puts the right word in the A position. If we used the complement O word "huro" ("belongs to") the sentence:
*Crayons belong I (me) one (is) red. *Seraki huro ku ure lozhum.
makes no sense because the A location word refered to by "ure" is "I (me)", and is not plural. On the other hand,
Crayon belong us one (is) red. Seraki huro kwi ure lozhum.
tells us that we jointly own a crayon and that one of us (the people, not the crayons) is red. Pay close attention to whether a given pronoun refers to the S or A position of the prior clause.
A similar pronoun is "verale" (ver-AH-lay) ("some of") which selects an unspecified number of items from the previous plural A position word. "Some of my crayons are green."
S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayons (seraki) S = some (verale) O = is/are (to) -- optional A = green (ridisu) I have crayons some (of which) (are) green. Ku pozo seraki verale ridisum.
So far the P-class words have refered only to the S or A of the immediately prior clause. In some cases we wish to lock down the assignment of the P word for more than one subsequent clause. In order to do this some of the link words can be used to alter the normal order of evaluation of the P word. For example:
S = I (ku) O = have (pozo) A = crayons (seraki) S = some (verale) O = are (to) -- optional A = blue (zharu) L = and (sena) S = some (verale) O = are (to) -- optional A = green (ridisu)
By using the linking word "sena" (say-NAH) we extend the reach of the pronoun "verale" back to the clause before. Essentially, "sena" tells us that the "verale" ("some") in both clauses refer to "seraki" ("crayons"). Without "sena" the "verale" in the final clause would refer back to "zharu" ("blue") in the clause before.
(Note that L words generally have their last sylllable accented.)
The complete sentence is:
I have crayons some (are) blue and some (are) green. Ku pozo seraki verale zharu sena verale ridisum.
Forward Reference, or A Word Deferred
In some cases it is necessary or desirable to refer to a word now, and not actually disclose that word until later. The P word that refers to some S or A that has not yet been mentioned is "sake" (SAH-kay). The clause that will finally resolve this forward reference is linked by the linking word "chota" (choe-TAH). For example, the somewhat poetically phrased: "It lies here broken, my crayon so red."
S = It (Sake) O = is (to) A = broken (fraktiu) L = this (chota) S = crayon (seraku) O = belong (huro) A = me (ku) S = same (same) O = that-is (shto) A = red (lozhu) It (is) broken this crayon belong I same that-is red. Sake fraktiu chota seraku huro ku same shto lozhum.
The L word "chota" tells us that the next S mentioned is what was being refered to by the P word "sake" that was mentioned some number of clauses earlier.
The linking word "khona" (khoe-NAH with "kh" sounding as "ch" in Scotish "loch" or "J.S. Bach") works the same way but refers us to the A position of the next clause rather than the S position. For example:
It (is) broken this crayon belong I. = It (is) broken my own crayon. Sake fraktiu chota seraku huro kum. = Sake fraktiu khona ku pozo serakum. It (is) broken my own crayon (it) that-is red. Sake fraktiu khona ku pozo seraku shto lozhum.
Refering to a non-concrete A-position word.
So far we have used P words to refer to prior A positions only when the words in those positions were concrete things like "crayon". But we can also refer back to A positions that do not represent concrete things like the words "red" or "old". For example: "My house is very old."
We already know how to write "My house is old.":
S = I (ku) O = own (pozo) A = house (devu) (DAY-voo) S = it (ite) -- optional O = is (to) A = old (chentu) (CHEN-too) I own house it is old. (OR: House belong I same is old.) Ku pozo devu to chentum. (Devu huro ku same to chentum.)
But how do we say "very old"? We do so by refering back to "old" in the following clause:
S = it (ite) -- optional O = in (peno) (PAY-noe) A = extreme (mushu) (MOO-shoe) I own house (it) is old (it) in extreme. Ku pozo devu (ite) to chentu (ite) peno mushum.
"in extreme" refers back to "old" not to "house". This sentence again illustrates one of the exceptions to the strict SOASOA rule of formation in that the "ite" in the s position is usually dropped . In practice this sentence would be written:
I own house (it) is old (it) in extreme. Ku pozo devu to chentu peno mushum.
Bear in mind that any sentence given here as an example could also be written in a number of different ways.
I own house (it) is old in extreme. Ku pozo devu to chentu peno mushum. House belong I same (is) old in extreme. Devu huro ku same chentu peno mushum. It (is) old in extreme this house belong I. Sake chentu peno mushu chota devu huro kum. It (is) old in extreme (my own house). Sake chentu peno mushu khona ku pozo devum.
Comparatives and Derivative O words.
Now that we have constructed "very old" the hard way, let's look at the more commonly used way.
The prefix "ma-" applied to certain words intensifies the meaning of the word as in "chentu" ("old") and "machentu" ("more old", "older", "very old"). The above sentence "Ku pozo devu to chentu peno mushum." could have used this prefix and been written "Ku pozo devu to machentum." This prefix can also be applied to colors to indicate a darker or more intense shade as in "zharu" ("blue") and "mazharu" ("royal blue", "deep blue").
The prefix "ki-" applied to certain words softens the meaning as in "chentu" ("old") and "kichentu" ("less old", "not so old"). Applied to colors it lightens the shade as in "lozhu" ("red") and "kilozhu" ("pink") or "kizharu" ("sky blue", "baby blue").
Either prefix can be reduplicated to indicate the maximum possible degree as in "chentu" ("old") and "mamachentu" ("ancient", "oldest", "very, very old"), or "kikilozhu" ("pale pink")
Class O words can be derived from class SA words by replacing the final letter. The meaning of such derived O words is usually comparative in nature as in "chentu" ("old") and "chento" ("to be as old as"), or "machentu" ("older") and "machento" ("to be older than"). This also applies to SA words that name the value of an attribute such as "lozhu" ("red") becoming "lozho" ("to be as red as"), and "malozhu" ("dark red" or "more red") becoming "malozho" ("to be redder than").
I (am) old. Ku chentum. You (are) older. Tu machentum. You are older than me. Tu machento kum. Thomas is very much older than dirt. Tomasu mamachento erdum. Roses are as red as apples. Gali lozho elamius.
There are several different ways of forming questions, but all follow the strict SOA clause structure. The most basic is to inquire as to the nature of a relationship by constucting a statement with an unknown relationship signified by the O word "kiano", which invites the listener to supply the missing relationship word. Rather than asking "Do you own a dog?" you would state "You have-unknown-relationship-to dog." to which the listener would reply that his is an ownership relationship, or whatever relationship is appropriate. For example: "Tu kiano kopum?" ("You have what relationship to dog?") which could be answered "Ku pozo kopius." ("I own [some] dogs.") or "Ku napozo kopum." ("I do not own a dog."). In informal speech the speaker might mention only the relationship as in: "Tu kiano kopum?" answreed with the single word: "Napozo."
The listener might also answer that he is afraid of dogs since the question did not specifically ask about dog ownership, but only invited the listener to supply whatever relationship word seemed appropriate. In order to ask specifically if the listener owns a cat, for example, you need two clauses. The first clause explains that you are asking for verification of the fact stated in the second clause. The O word "prevo" means roughly "to ask if it is true that...". For example: "Ku prevo de tu pozo pelum." (SOASOA) ("I ask-is-it-true-that you own [a] cat.")
The Past, and Other Tense Situations
Although class O words do not always correspond to verbs in the strictest sense of the word, they do express a relationship between the S and the A of the clause which is assumed to exist currently. To express a relationship that once existed but no longer does, the O word takes a prefix depending on the nature of the relationship. If the relationship was a one-time event, or was of short duration the prefix "pa-" is used. For example, "Ku paviziro kopum." which could be translated "I saw a dog." or "I once saw a dog." If, however, the relationship was habitual or of some extended duration, but no longer exists, then the prefix "lo-" is used. "Ku lopozo kopum." translates "I had a dog." or "I used to own a dog."
Another use for this distinction is to indicated some action just completed as opposed to some action which was habitual or performed as a career or way of life. In response to the question "Tu kiano stadu.", "You have-unknown-relationsip-to work/career." you might answer "Ku sibero stadius.", "I (presently) supervise workers", or "Ku pasibero stadius.", "I supervised workers (recently and in one particular instance.)" versus "Ku losibero andrius." "I used to be a supervisor of people."
The prefix "shi-" indicates a relationship that is no longer true, but which has just now become untrue. For example, "Adiru muteo sateru sena khailu ito lozhum." ("The sun [now] goes under [I.e., is setting] and the sky is [now] red.") vs. "Adiru shimuteo sateru sena khailu shito lozhum." ("The sun [just a moment ago] went down and sky was [just a moment ago] red.")
The prefix "iko-" indicates that the relationship has just now become true. "Khailu ikoto lozhum." (The sky has [just now] become red.")
The progressive aspect is marked by the prefix "be-", as in "Adiru bemuteo sateru." ("The sun is [now] setting."), or "Ku bevilero emporu." ("I am running-to (the) market.").
The Complement of To
When we say "Seraku to lozhum." ("The crayon is red.") we need also to be able to say "Red is the crayon" except that "to" cannot be used in both cases since a word cannot be its own complement. Instead we use the O word "ebo", which joins its S and A words in the opposite order as "to" but with the same meaning. Thus "Seraku to lozhum." means exactly the same thing as "Lozhu ebo serakum."
Now we are prepared to do another alternate translation of our earlier poetic sentence: "It lies here broken, my crayon so red."
The word "lies", and the word "so", expressing degree of redness were conveniently ignored in the example above. Now we can write:
S = It (sake) O = is (kelo) - in the sense of being located in a place A = here (paludes) S = broken (fraktiu) O = is (ebo) A = same (same) L = this (chota) S = crayon (seraku) O = belong (huro) A = me (ku) S = same (same) O = that-is (shto) A = very-red (malozhu) Sake kelo paludes fraktiu ebo same chota seraku huro ku same shto malozhum.
These, Them, and Those
Sometimes we need to say something like "This house is new, that house is old and the other one is ancient." Clearly "This house is new" contains two units of information and will require two clauses.
S = here (paludes) O = be (saito) Complement of kelo A = house (devu) S = (it) (ite) optional O = is (to) A = new (anlu) S = there (tenzin) (TEN-zin) in that location O = be (saito) A = house (devu) S = (it) (ite) optional O = is (to) A = old (chentu) S = other-place (diales) (dee-AH-less) O = be (saito) A = house (devu) S = (it) (ite) optional O = is (to) A = ancient (mamachentu) Paludes saito devu to anlu, tenszin saito devu to chentu, diales saito devu to mamachentum.
In daily speech one would not repeat the word "devu" ("house") in so monotonous a manner. Instead, the noun-like forms of "tenzin" and "diales", which are, strcitly speaking, pronouns of a sort, would be used with it being understood that they refered to the same kind of thing, i.e. a house, as the first clause refered to. So instead of
Paludes saito devu to anlu, tenzin saito devu to chentu, diales saito devu to mamachentum. Here is house (that) is new, there is house (that) is old, elsewhere is house (that) is ancient.
We would normally say:
Paludes saito devu to anlu, tenzu to chentu, sena dialu to mamachentum. Here located house is new, there-one is old, and other-one is ancient.
"The ball is yellow and blue." seems to present a problem. How do we combine two attributes in the same clause. The answer is, we can't. Instead we link two clauses together:
S = ball (palu) A = is (to) O = yellow (yanu) L = and (sena) S = same (same) A = is (to) O = blue (zharu) Palu to yanu sena same to zharum.
In practice, we find that the strict SOALOA rules are relaxed when the word "sena" links two clauses with identical form and refering to an additional attribute of the same object. Instead, the form SOALA is permitted:
S = ball (palu) A = is (to) O = yellow (yanu) L = and (sena) O = blue (zharu) Palu to yanu sena zharum.
The most straightforward way to do comparatives is, as we saw above, with an O word (for example, "marugo" ("to be bigger than"), derived from an SA word (in this example, "marugu", "bigger", from "rugu" "large", "big"):
S = I (ku) O = own (pozo) A = marble (tlagu) S = (IT) (ite) optional O = bigger-than (marugo) A = marble (tlagu) S = (IT) (ite) optional O = belong (huro) A = you (tu) Ku pozo tlagu marugo tlagu huro tum. Another alternative: Tlagu huro ku same marugo tlagu huru tum.
Ongoing processes are treated more like a static state of affairs than a single action.To convey "I am running" we use an operator O word that specifies that the subject S is in the state specified by the argument A.
S = I (ku) O = is-in-state (ineo) A = running (vileru) Ku ineo vilerum.
To make the sentence "I am running to the store." we link the running-me by using the S word "tose" which stands, not for a single previously mentioned word, but for the whole meaning of the entire previous clause.
S = I (ku) O = is-in-state (ineo) A = running (vileru) S = me-in-that-state (tose) as expressed in the previous clause O = go-to (muteo) A = store, market (emporu) Ku ineo vileru tose muteo emporum.
O words may also have forms that indicate past action as in: "Ku pineo vileru tose shimuteo emporum." ("I was running [for a while] and [just now] got to the market.")
There are times when the subject of a clause needs to be a whole group of prior clauses. An example would be "I ran quickly to the market." In this case it is me-running-quickly that is carried to the market so the clause "X go-to market" needs for the value of X to be the entire compound clause that expresses "me running quickly". For this we use the bracket link "ase" (AH-se) with the bracket S word "ensu". It works like this:
(begin bracket of clauses) (ase) S = I (ku) O = is-in-state (ineo) A = running (vileru) S = IT (i.e. the running) (ite) O = is (to) A = quick (ekutu) S = (enso) (close and collect the total meaning of everything bracketed) O = go-to (muteo) A = market (emporu) Ase ku ineo vileru ite to ekutu enso muteo emporum.
Another way to modify "running" is with the comparative prefix "ma-" introduced earlier. In this case, the simpler form "Ku ineo mavileru tose muteo emporum." works just as well to express the same meaning, since "mavileru" means in a state of "more runningness", implying faster, or more intense running.
Some random unorganized notes and sentences
These are random thoughts and ideas that have not yet been fully integrated into the design, or into the web page.
Are you suggesting that we just wait here until somebody finds us?
S = I (ku) O = question (prevo) (to qustion the truth of) A = THAT (de) (refers to the sum of everything that follows.) S = you (tu) O = suggest (fervo) A = THAT (de) S = we (kwi) O = remain (stato) A = here (eru) L = UNTIL (konda) S = somebody (siandru) O = find (desko) A = we (kwi) Ku prevo de tu fervo de kwi stato eru konda siandru desko kwius.
"I'm in charge of finding myself, and I make sure it never happens." -Methos. S - I (ku) O - supervise (sibero) control, be in charge of, oversee, guide, pilot, ... A - ... (done) (DOE-nay) P-class forward reference to total meaning of next clause. No equivalent English word. S - I (ku) O - find (desko) discover, uncover, locate, ... A - I (ku) L - and (sena) S - I (ku) O - insure (meko) cause to happen A - ... (done) S - I (ku) 0 - not-find (nadesko) na+desko A - I (ku) "I'm in charge of finding myself, and I make sure it never happens." "I supervise that I find me and I insure that I not-find me." "Ku sibero done ku desko ku sena ku meko done ku nadesko kum." "It's the kind of game that you just want to go home, sit down and play right away." S - game (famu) O - is type (membero) to belong to class A - "such that" (kode) Class P word refers to all that follows (see also "de") S - you (tu) O - desire (teziro) A - "that" (de) S - you (tu) O - go to (mutio) A - home, house (devu) L - and then (dezha) S - you (tu) O - to seat (sereso) A - yourself (tu) L - and then (dezha) S - you (tu) O - play (fameo) A - "the former" (ete) Class P word refers to "former" or first S word of the sentence. "It's the kind of game that you just want to go home, sit down and play right away." "Game is-of-type such-that you desire that you go home and-then you seat yourself and-then you play said-game." "Famu membero kode tu teziro de tu mutio devu dezha tu sereso tu dezha tu fameo etam."
Andru pozo eliantum. The man has a kite. (form = SOA)
Andru pozo elaintu shto lozhum. The man has a kite that is red. (form = SOA OA)
Eliantu huro andru same shto lozhu to niatrim. The kite that belongs to the man, the same one that is red, it is lost. (form = SOA SOA OA)
Sede ku naquesto de tu enevo pratu, tu prento devu napozo etam. You came home without the bread I asked you to buy. (Though I requested that you buy bread, you return home not-having it.) (form = L SOA SOA SOA OA)